06. January 2023

ZEI Discussion Papers ZEI Discussion Papers

"The Evolution of the EU’s Perception towards Ukraine" by Kateryna Khalabuzar and "Kritische Rohstoffe in der EU - Herausforderungen und Handlungsfelder" by Simon Jerome Dietewich

ZEI DP 275 276 n
ZEI DP 275 276 n © ZEI
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"The Evolution of the EU’s Perception towards Ukraine" by Kateryna Khalabuzar

Getting an EU perspective and a candidate status took Ukraine through a long, complex, and controversial integration path. Since the declaration of its independence in 1991, Ukraine has undergone tremendous changes in terms of political and nation-building processes that could not go unnoticed by the EU. From being ‘terra malecognita’ on the periphery of Europe, Ukraine has become a symbol of defending European values. Thus, to get a better insight of how the EU’s perception of Ukraine has developed over time, it is also crucial to shed light on key turning moments and political developments in Ukraine, which brought fundamental changes to the EU’s understanding of Ukraine.

Download ZEI DP C 275 / 2023


"Kritische Rohstoffe in der EU - Herausforderungen und Handlungsfelder" by Simon Jerome Dietewich

The war in Ukraine reveals the EU's painful dependence on Russian oil and gas. This fact is sufficiently present in the media, but another threat is rising on a different raw material front. The EU is highly dependent on high-tech minerals, so called "critical raw materials". These are needed to produce computer chips, rechargeable batteries or alloys that are indispensable for our everyday lives, the technological mastering of the climate crisis and defense technologies. Commodity exporting countries have already recognized their value and are using this for political reasons. This article provides an overview of the critical raw materials in the EU, the challenges of procurement and the action taken by the EU since 2008.

Download ZEI DP C 276/2023

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