ZEI Discussion Paper 2017 - 2008

Die „ZEI Discussion Paper" richten sich mit ihren von Wissenschaftlern und politischen Akteuren verfassten Beiträgen an Wissenschaft, Politik und Publizistik. Sie geben die persönliche Meinung der Autoren wieder. Die Beiträge fassen häufig Ergebnisse aus laufenden Forschungsprojekten des ZEI zusammen. Die „ZEI Discussion Paper" erscheinen mehrfach im Jahr.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 244 / 2017

The Maltese Presidency of the European Union 2017   -  Joe Borg

Every Presidency of the European Union seeks to leave its own mark in one way or another on one or more particular facets of the evolving process of the European Union. This becomes even more important for a Member State who, like my own country, Malta, has been at the helm for the first time. In my view, the three most prominent aspects of the Maltese Presidency are the setting out of a joint vision for the European Union for the years to come; the formal commencement of the Brexit process; and the particular focus on the EU’s Mediterranean Policy. This paper seeks to address these three matters by first having a look at what happened during the six months’ term of the Maltese Presidency and then by expressing my views on the results achieved and on the way forward.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 243 / 2017

Perspectives on EU-Latin American Cooperation: Enhancing Governance, Human Mobility and Security Policies   -  César Castilla

This discussion paper tries to analyze the future cooperation between the European Union, Latin America and the Caribbean, based on the challenges of the main integration process. The paper tries to identify the main areas of cooperation in order to enhance governance in this region and taking into account the political landscape of the European Union in the next few years.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 242 / 2017

Weltfähig werden. Die Europäische Union nach dem Biedermeier   -  Ludger Kühnhardt

The multiple crises of the European Union demand rigorous honesty in the analysis of structural deficits. The Need to overcome the set of current crises with more Long-term and substantial perspectives is all-pervasive. In order to renew the EU it is essential to recognize the external pressure which is rooted in fundamental changes around the world. It is time to make the EU fit for a comprehensive global role as the Global Strategy 2016 is suggesting.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 241 / 2017

EU External Energy Policy in Natural Gas: A Case of Neofunctionalist Integration?   -  Robert Stüwe

The energy policy of the European Commission has deepened integration of EU natural gas matters. Energy cooperation at EU level and policy mechanisms for cooperation with third countries are harmonized to a large extent. The author concludes that integration strategies of the EU Commission follow the spillover-logic as set out by the theory of Neofunctionalism - a concept first developed by Ernst Bernard Haas to explain the post-war creation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) as peace-preserving institutions. According to this theory, integration in one sector creates further integration in related policy sectors out of inherent necessity. The EU Commission has used spillover-strategies in the EU-Russia Energy Dialogue, in the Trilateral Gas Talks, in the Energy Community and in major pipeline projects such as the "Southern Gas Corridor". These platforms offer opportunity structures for supranational action which enable the realization of the "Energy Union". Intergovernmental backlashes ("Spillback-Effect") as observed in the 'gas crises' of 2006 and 2009 as well as the contractual state-to-state reality of Intergovernmental Gas Delivery Agreements present the most significant obstacles for a coherent EU external energy policy in natural gas.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 240 / 2017

The Impact of the European Union on National Legislation   -  Tapio Raunio / Matti Wiberg

One of the key arguments of the ‘leave’ side in the Brexit referendum of June 2016 was that 60 % or even 75 % of British legislation originated in Brussels, not in London. Examining the impact of European Union on national legislation in Finland, we show that contrary to the widely accepted ‘Delors myth’, only 17.8 % on national laws adopted between 1995 and 2015 were related to the EU. Evidence from other European countries corroborates our findings: the share of domestic laws with an EU impulse is higher in some countries but never even close to the 80 % threshold suggested by the Delors myth.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 239 / 2017

Revolutionäre Ereignisse und geoökonomischstrategische Ergebnisse: Die EU- und NATO-„Osterweiterungen“ 1989-2015 im Vergleich   -  Michael Gehler

Michael Gorbachev’s policy of reforms (1985-1989), the revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe (1989), and the breakdown of the Soviet Union (1991) opened the door and paved the way for the Eastern enlargement of both the EU and NATO. Both of these were the result of geoeconomic and geostrategical decision-making from 1999 to 2007. These enlargements did not occur simultaneously, but rather with a time lag due to the fact that the EU enlargement, which came later, was more complex, costly, and time-consuming with regard to negotiations than was NATO’s Eastern enlargement. The Baltic States as well as the countries of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe desired the Eastern enlargement of both the EU and NATO. Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic were the first to be integrated. The Eastern enlargement of the EU was more or less accepted by Russia, while it at first observed skeptically and ultimately opposed that of NATO. It was not by accident that on the part of the USA and the Federal Republic of Germany, nothing legally binding was offered toward Russia, but as early as 1990, oral assurances and statements of confidence were made to it with regard to not expanding NATO any further to the East. The Eastern enlargement of the EU constituted an historic opportunity for Brussels to expand the acquis communautaire as well as its trade and the Single Market all the way to the Baltics in the north and to the Black Sea in the south. This was also closely connected with a medium-term and long-term perspective integrating the “Western Balkans”. Decision-making in favor of the EU and NATO by all of those states and regions was seen by Russia as a concept of the Western conqueror as well as a geopolitical and geostrategical disadvantage concerning its own position. In light of the demonstration of military strength and the renaissance of classic hard power policy made by Russia when beginning measures of destabilization in the eastern areas of Ukraine and then occupying and annexing Crimea, the Eastern enlargement of NATO appeared to be justified and necessary by the new members of the transatlantic alliance. In spite of Western security policy, Russian countermeasures could be taken for granted, causing the continuous potential for conflicts and threats of war in these areas of Europe. Therefore, the question may be raised as to whether there had been missed opportunities before for avoiding these aggressions by binding Russia closer to the EU earlier on.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 238 / 2016

The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). An Insight into its Transatlantic Relations and Global Context   -  Matteo Scotto

In the past year, most of European and American citizens could confirm to have heard at least once something about an ongoing negotiation regarding a free trade agreement European Union and United States are likely to sign, namely TTIP (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership). Thus, after a decade of misunderstanding, during which the two sides of the ocean have never appeared to be so distant, Transatlanticism apparently got back on track by promoting the most significant free trade area both in economic and geopolitical terms. Could TTIP represent the “Renaissance of Transatlantic relations”? Is TTIP the bridge that can reconnect the two sides of the Atlantic? The aim of this work is to understand in which sense TTIP could bring closer EU and US on the one side and strengthen the Transatlantic region vis-à-vis the rest of the world on the other.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 237 / 2016

Nachhaltige regionale Integration in Westafrika und Europa. ZEI Forschungskooperation mit dem West Africa Institute (WAI) von 2007 bis 2016  -  Matthias Vogl / Rike Sohn

Given the growing importance of regional integration in the world and in light of its working plan to analyse unresolved problems of European integration and Europe’s role in the world, the Center for European Integration Studies (ZEI) started to build a research agenda on comparative regional integration in 2005. Out of this worldwide research program, numerous summer schools, as well as the bi-regional research and consulting cooperation “Sustainable Regional Integration in West Africa and Europe”, a joint project with the West Africa Institute (WAI) in Praia, Cabo Verde, evolved during the following years. The latter was sponsored by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) during the years 2010-2016 as a social science beacon project of the ministry’s internationalization strategy. WAI is the first research institute of its kind in West Africa, offering academic analysis, concrete policy advice and the dissemination of knowledge on regional integration in West Africa.

The joint ZEI-WAI project aimed particularly at supporting WAI in the establishment and organization of its research, as well as the joint analysis of selected policy fields through bi-regional research groups, providing the basis for soundly advising policy-makers and other stakeholders of regional integration. All research results have been published as part of the joint publication program. Focus areas of the research were “Regional Integration and Policy Formulation Processes”, “Economic Integration and Regional Trade” and “Institutional Capacity Development”. In addition, West African postgraduate scholars were trained within the Master of European Studies – formed Governance and Regulation at ZEI. At the same time, ZEI supported the establishment of a specialized library in African Regional Integration at the National Library in Cabo Verde and the creation of a Master program in African Regional Integration (MARI) of WAI and the University of Cabo Verde (UNI-CV).

ZEI Discussion Paper C 236 / 2016

America and Europe in the Twenty-first Century   -  James D. Bindenagel

The British have voted to leave the EU. The ‘BREXIT’ debate is emblematic of the populist forces sweeping Europe and the United States. Distrust of elites has propelled the forces of European disintegration and fragmentation. This British vote has international implications. The system of international norms and accepted policies, which in 1990 and the past decades delivered Germany and Europe whole, free, and in peace in a widening European Union, is now at risk. Today, ZEI Fellows face a multitude of challenges and will need to meet these challenges and defeat threats to transatlantic values and to the peaceful international order. They are now finished, yet just beginning. The Center for European Integration Fellows are capable of achieving greatness. Now it is up to them.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 235 / 2016

Maturing beyond Cotonou: An EU-ACP Association Treaty for Development. A proposal for reinventing EU relations with the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of States.   -  Ludger Kühnhardt

The partnership between the European Union and 79 countries of Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific – united as the ACP group of states – is based on the Cotonou Agreement. This unique and legally binding treaty is the only existing one which includes countries on four continents. It defines EU-ACP relations in the fields of development aid, trade and political dialogue. The Cotonou Treaty will expire in 2020. ZEI Director Prof. Dr. Ludger Kühnhardt takes stock with the EU-ACP partnership and makes bold proposals for its future: He calls for a strategic maturation and the negotiation of an “EU-ACP Association Treaty for Development”. He focuses on thematic priorities, discusses regional particularities and projects a stronger global visibility, especially in the United Nations, of the EU-ACP grouping beyond 2020.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 234 / 2016

EU environmental policy and diplomacy from Copenhagen to Paris and beyond   -  Rike Sohn

The UN Climate Summit in Paris in December 2015 was a major success for EU climate diplomacy, being far away from the Copenhagen blow to the EU's self-image as a global climate leader in 2009. In the run-up to Paris, credibility in the EU’s role as a ‘leadiator’ in international climate negotiations could partly be rebuilt as the union was capable to establish internal policy coherence early on and build a strong alliance with developing countries and major emitters. This played a huge role in facilitating the Paris Agreement.

The paper analyses the last six years of the EU’s internal and external environmental policy. It provides insights into the making of the Paris Agreement, the EU’s role for building it and the issues that need to be discussed for its effective application. As the agreement itself is a piece of paper, everything will depend on its implementation efforts. Thus, the paper concludes with suggestions for the EU’s environmental policy towards implementing the agreement with a particular view until the first global stock-taking 2018 and the transition road to a sustainable carbon neutral economy in the long-run.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 233 / 2016

Movement, Security and Media   -  Carla Manzanas

The arrival of people at the Southern shores of Europe has become a major issue for the European Union and those Member States at the rims of the Mediterranean. The measures implemented and laws enacted by the European Union have mostly a security and military tenor. This Discussion Paper analyses how migration has become a security issue in Europe and the response that governments have given to the current situation.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 232 / 2015

North Rhine-Westphalia and the European Union   -  Hannelore Kraft

Keynote speech at the Final Ceremony of the ZEI Class of 2015.

On the occasion of the Final Ceremony of the ZEI Master of European Studies “Class of 2015”, Prime Minister Hannelore Kraft congratulated the this year’s graduates and at the same time the ZEI and its staff for its past twenty years of innovative and successful academic work. Twenty years in which the European Union has succeeded in making progress in many areas, like Economic and Monetary Union, EU enlargement, introduction of the Euro and the changing role of the regions in the EU. North Rhine-Westphalia, the 8th largest region in the EU, is conducting proactive policy both in Berlin and in Brussels and combines European and regional politics in many areas. The European Union has to face new challenges, which can be only solved successful and confidence building as a common and even closer Union.

Hannelore Kraft is Premier of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, the most populated region in Germany.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 231 / 2015

Europarties - A Research Note   -  Karl Magnus Johansson

This paper outlines and elaborates the role of Europarties – political parties at European level – in the political system of the European Union (EU). It explores the key role and features of these organisations and claims that they are significant actors, particularly through their mobilisation of political parties and leaders. However, the conditions for Europarty influence are demanding. Europarties can be expected to matter when they are in numerical ascendance, relatively cohesive and able to mobilise their networks of political parties and leaders. These leaders remain first and foremost national politicians, responsible to national electorates. Therefore, Europarty influence and relevance overall remain conditioned on the domestic political context of national parties and leaders. Yet, functional pressures for transnational engagement serve to further institutionalise Europarties.

Karl Magnus Johansson is Professor of Political Science at Södertörn University, South Stockholm.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 230 / 2015

The Energy Union – a solution for the European energy security?   -  Thomas Panayotopoulos

The topic of energy security was for a long time left aside in the European Union. However, times are changing as the new European Commission announced a Framework Strategy for the Energy Union. The Energy Union is presented as the way to correct the European Union energy paradox, stating that the European Union, which was created around Energy (ECSC and EURATOM), sixty years later does not have a common energy security policy. In this context dependency to gas imports coming from Russia is perceived as a real threat for the energy security of the European Union revealing that the lack of diversity of energy sources as well as the variety of national policies in the area of energy security are the main reasons for this vulnerability. ZEI Research Fellow Thomas Panayotopoulos analyses the current energy dependency situation focussing on its causes and the energy union as a possible solution.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 229 / 2015

Innovations of the European Central Bank in the Context of Financial and Monetary Integration. A Chinese Assessment   -  Kun Hu

In the 15 years since the introduction of the Euro, the integration process within the European Economic and Monetary Union has seen rapid development in terms of both breadth and depth. Exclusively responsible for the monetary policy of the Eurozone, the European Central Bank has continued to adjust to meet the challenges brought about by these changes. The paper explores financial and monetary integration in the Eurozone and reviews the reasons, specific performance and impact of changes in the European Central Bank’s decision-making mechanisms. The purpose of which is to deepen and expand understanding in academic circles of the European economy and the European Economic and Monetary Union, as well as their development trends.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 228 / 2015

Neighbors and other realities: The Atlantic civilization and its enemies   -  Ludger Kühnhardt

2014 was a watershed year for the geopolitical positioning of the European Union. For the first time since the end of the Cold War, Europe is no longer exporting stability but has begun to import instability in an unprecedented way. The neighborhood policy needs a fundamental review as non-European actors pursue policy concepts and strategies that run counter to EU norms and interests. ZEI Director Prof. Dr. Ludger Kühnhardt argues that the values of the Atlantic civilization have come under pressure in a world which tends to be influenced by new conflicts or a secular nature.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 227 / 2015

Europäische Integration aus historischer Erfahrung. Ein Zeitzeugengespräch mit Michael Gehler   -  Monika Wulf-Mathies

From 1995 to 1999 Monika Wulf-Mathies served as EU commissioner responsible for regional and cohesion policy. She tells us the story of the EU Commission under President Jacques Santer with regard to the historical development of the preparation of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), the Union Treaty of Amsterdam (1999) and the EU-Eastern Enlargement. She touches also controversial aspects of the Santer Commission, which led to her collective demission in 1999. According to Wulf-Mathies the increase of EU's democracy deficit is result of an erosion process of the common institutions caused by the nation states which contributed to their weakness. The democratic substance of the union suffers because of the 'summarization' of the EU decision making processes. Monika Wulf-Mathies argues in favor of the community method, which needs revitalization. She proposes European democracy enforcement and transfers of the national budget und economy policies to EU bodies. This eyewitness talk offers an actual EU analysis as well as an assessment of the Santer Commission.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 226 / 2014

European Foreign and Security Policy since the Lisbon Treaty – From Common to single?   -  Lothar Rühl

Since the Lisbon Treaty, all organizational conditions have been created for the systematic use of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP).

Military and civil structures, especially the operational headquarters and associated common structures like transport command, have been established. 

Until now there has been limited activity in crisis resolution, outside of Bosnia and Macedonia, and therefore little has been done in replacement of NATO. It is therefore difficult to assess the development of the common policy on conflict prevention and crisis management and it has been shown that in all cases NATO should come into play as planned from the outset.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 225 / 2014

Die proto-konstitutionelle Etablierung der europäischen Innenpolitik   -  Ludger Kühnhardt

ZEI Director Prof. Ludger Kühnhardt recalls the leading ideas of federalism as territorial equivalent for political pluralism . Celebrating the 80th anniversary of Bonn historian and political scientist Prof. Dr. Hans-Peter Schwarz, he reflects on the emerging EU domestic policies in ZEI Discussion Paper C 225.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 224 / 2014

Communication and Campaigning in European Citizens‘ Initiatives   -  Christina Wunder

One million signatures from at least seven European Member States: Fulfilling the conditions of the European Citizens’ Initiative requires a communication campaign, which manages to reach and touch the citizens, as well as to encourage them to act. This empirical study analyses, which methods in this regard are successful or rather counterproductive. It comes to the conclusion that a variety of factors are decisive, and that these factors can differ in their manifestation – such as the availability of financial resources, the emotional potential of the issue or a sophisticated network of supporters.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 223 / 2014

Gibt es eine politische Philosophie der Europäischen Union?   -  Ludger Kühnhardt

In a theoretical context, the European Union is generally interpreted through the prism of integration theories, which in turn reflect the ever changing empirical reality of the integration process. ZEI Director Ludger Kühnhardt asks if and to what extent the process of European integration has begun to generate a specific political philosophy which uses the EU - and not the classical notion of the state – as the starting and reference point for its reasoning. Kühnhardt examines examples – such as the European notion of civil rights and the notion of the Union itself, but also critical categories such as euroskepticism – which indicate that the EU itself is beginning to be the starting point and frame of reference for a reflection on the common good. For now, a political philosophy in the context of the European Union exists only in an embryonic stage, but the topic may generate intellectual insights through further and deeper research.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 222 / 2014

Regionale Integration in der arabischen Welt - eine neofunktionalistische Analyse   -  Simon Perger

ZEI Discussion Paper C 221 / 2014

Europäische Integration aus historischer Erfahrung. Ein Zeitzeugengespräch mit Michael Gehler   -  Günter Verheugen

ZEI Discussion Paper C 220 / 2013

Europäische Integration aus historischer Erfahrung. Ein Zeitzeugengespräch mit Michael Gehler   -  Michaele Schreyer

ZEI Discussion Paper C 219 / 2013

Die Demokratisierung der Europäischen Union   -  Thorsten Kim Schreiweis

ZEI Discussion Paper C 218 / 2013

Die deutsche Europapolitik unter den Vorgaben des Bundesverfassungsgerichts   -  Martin Seidel

ZEI Discussion Paper C 217 / 2013

Free movement of workers in the EU. Legal aspects of the transitional arrangements   -  Desislava Kraleva

ZEI Discussion Paper C 216 / 2013

Current Challenges in the EU Politics. A Perspective from North Rhine-Westphalia   -  Marc Jan Eumann

ZEI Discussion Paper C 215 / 2013

Die Gestaltung der Globalität. Schlüsselwörter der sozialen Ordnung (II)   -  Ludger Kühnhardt / Tilman Mayer (eds.)

ZEI Discussion Paper C 214 / 2012

Economic Partnership Agreements in the EU’s post-Lomé Trade Regime: Negotiations with West Africa   -  Claudia Rommel

ZEI Discussion Paper C 213 / 2012

Poland and Greece – Two Contrasting EU Enlargement Experiences   -  Ryszard Rapacki

ZEI Discussion Paper C 212 / 2012

Regieren in der europäischen Föderation   -  Ludger Kühnhardt

ZEI Director Ludger Kühnhardt is pleading for the development of governing in the EU as a European federation. He discusses the proposals which Poland's Foreign Minister Sikorski presented in autumn 2011 and develops them further. Amidst frustration and shock over the sovereign debt crisis of several EU member states and beyond the crisis management that has dominated the European discourse for the past years, Kühnhardt discusses the political perspectives that will follow the establishment of the planned fiscal union. He pleas for a solidarity union rooted in the notion of a European society.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 211 / 2012

Die Gestaltung der Globalität. Schlüsselwörter der sozialen Ordnung (I)   -  Ludger Kühnhardt / Tilman Mayer (eds.)

Since 2009, ZEI is engaged in a research project titled "Shaping Globality". Following methodological and conceptual work, the scholars engaged in this project have begun to reflect the consequences of the "global turn" on key notions of social order. The new ZEI Discussion Paper brings together several scholarly papers on key notions of social order under the conditions of globality, written by academics of Bonn University: space (Ruth Knoblich/Robert Meyer), norm (Andreas Marchetti), world government (Christian Schwermann) and knowledge (Maximilian Mayer). The ZEI Discussion Paper is edited by Ludger Kühnhardt and Tilman Mayer.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 210 / 2012

Europäische Integration aus historischer Erfahrung. Ein Zeitzeugengespräch mit Michael Gehler   -  Peter M. Schmidhuber

As part of the ZEI series of historic conversations with former German EU Commissioners, ZEI Senior Fellow Prof. Dr. Michael Gehler presents the reflections with former EU Commissioner Peter Schmidhuber in this "Discussion Paper".

Peter M. Schmidhuber studied law and economy at the Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich. Having joined the Bavarian political party Christian Social Union (CSU) since 1952 he became a member of the municipal council (1960-66), the national parliament 'Bundestag' (1965-1969, 1972-78) and the provincial parliament 'Bayerischer Landtag' (1978-87). At the same time (1978-87) he served also as a State Minister of Federal Affairs in the cabinet of the Bavarian Minister President Franz Josef Strauß. From 1987 to 1995 Schmidhuber was a member of the EU Commission headed by Jacques Delors in Brussels. During these years Schmidhuber was responsible for regional policy, market economy and budget control. This eyewitness talk provides new insights about German contemporary history after 1945 as well as the transition process from the European Communities to the European Union in the 1980s and the 1990s.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 209 / 2012

MERCOSUR and its Current Relationship to the European Union. Prospects and Challenges in a Changing World   -  Patricia Luíza Kegel / Mohamed Amal

After 12 years of negotiations in order to conclude a Free Trade Agreement between the EU and MERCOSUR, the global financial crisis has imposed new conditions on their strategic alliance. The purpose of this ZEI Discussion Paper is to measure the impact of changing global patterns of trade and Foreign Direct Investment on the relations between the EU and MERCOSUR. This will be done while addressing the new factors influencing negotiations, with particular emphasis on Brazil's new role as an agent of dynamic change in MERCOSUR’s positioning on the international scene, as well as the shift of economic power toward Southeast Asia and other emerging economies. The main conclusion of this ZEI Discussion Paper points out that in both regional integration blocs, change leading to an efficient negotiation process means not only a change in trade negotiation positions but, above all, a shift in the political perception of strategic relationships allowing for the consolidation of common interests and views in a changing world.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 208 / 2011

Sustainable Regional Integration in West Africa/ Intégration régionale durable en Afrique de l´Ouest/ Integração regional sustentavel na África Ocidental   -  Corsino Tolentino / Matthias Vogl (eds.)

The present Discussion Paper deals with obstacles to sustainable regional integration in West Africa. The Paper is published in the framework of a cooperation project between the Center for European Integration Studies (ZEI) and the West Africa Institute (WAI) in Praia, Cape Verde, financed by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The respective articles particularly focus on the three fields of security, economics and education and knowledge transfer in the context of regional integration in West Africa. In the course of a discussion process running between the two institutes since 2010, researchers of both institutes have identified those three fields as the main obstacles to sustainable integration in the West African region.

The contributions show, that in spite of high aspirations of politicians, little progress has been achieved with regard to regional economic integration and the regional exchange of goods, even though this had been the principal motivation for the foundation of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).

A similar gap between rhetoric and substance is identified in the field of security policy. Although West Africa has become a frontrunner for the whole of Africa concerning regional security engagement, it still has serious problems with the implementation of “Human Security”.

Finally, education and knowledge transfer are described not only as keys to the development of Africa in general, but also as crucial factors to optimize the regional integration process and to disseminate knowledge about this phenomenon to a wider public. The Discussion Paper reveals that there is an enormous backlog demand in all three fields. This is why the two institutes plan to conduct in-depth analysis in the framework of a long-term cooperation 2012-2015. On the basis of the results gained through this research, recommendations and approaches for the solution of existing problems will be formulated and forwarded to West African decision-makers.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 207 / 2011

Negotiating EU Law. Particularities and Conclusions   -  Klaus-Jörg Heynen

In Brussels nothing drops from the sky. No regulation, directive, decision, communication, green book or white book is done at random. Everything is the result of the specific EU decision making process. This decision making process is directed and controlled by negotiations. So the Member States and their negotiators, as well as non-governmental stakeholders can be highly influential. Nevertheless, there are often failures and deep disappointments about results for those involved in negotiating.

The Center for European Integration Studies (ZEI) has made effective early negotiating and lobbying at the EU level, one of the primary foci of its Master of European Studies (MES). In the field of EU negotiating, there is little published literature related to actual negotiation practices rather, most sources are based on first person experience in EU negotiations.

The aim of ZEI Discussion Paper C207/2011 is to fill that gap. It is based on the premise that in an EU comprising 27 Member States only a small part of negotiations take place in the conference room. Negotiating has become a very complex task that is often continued largely outside the conference room. It identifies those particularities of the EU decision-making process that are relevant for negotiators including voting by majority, weighting of Member State votes, the role of the Commission, the EP and the Presidency as well as the multitude of bodies and persons involved, the diversity of national interests, the sustainability of negotiating relations and the language regime. The paper then illustrates the necessary actions to be taken with regard to these considerations in order to have a successful EU negotiating approach.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 206 / 2011

The European Union and Monetary Integration in West Africa   -  Chibuike Uche

This ZEI Discussion Paper shows how developments in Europe have been the most important variable in the monetary integration process in West Africa. It argues that the changing political landscape in Europe has altered the nature of incentives behind the interest of foreign stakeholders in the West African region. This in itself creates new opportunities for a region‐wide monetary integration program in West Africa. The ZEI Discussion Paper argues that the above objective can best be attained through the gradual expansion of the membership of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) in order to absorb members of the Second Monetary Zone which has been on the drawing board for over a decade now. The ZEI Discussion Paper also makes a case for the European Union to support the above scheme.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 205 / 2011

Leadership by Credibility. Franco-German Visions of the Future of the Union   -  Andreas Marchetti / Louis-Marie Clouet

ZEI Discussion Paper C 204 / 2011

EU-Russian Relations: Evolution and Theoretical Assessment   -  Derviş Fikret Ünal

The demise of the Soviet Union resulted in dramatic changes in the international order. This ZEI Discussion Paper does examine EU-Russian relations since the end of the Cold War in a theoretical context of realist, liberal, supranational and intergovernmentalist schools of thought. It is argued that the evolutionary process of the relations has incorporated the different explanations made by the three different perceptions.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 203 / 2011

Die Gestaltung der Globalität. Wirkungen der Globalität auf ausgewählte Fächer der Philosophischen Fakultät   -  Ludger Kühnhardt / Tilman Mayer (eds.)

The authors of this ZEI Discussion Paper reflect on the implications of globality and the global turn for their respective academic discipline. The authors are professors at the Faculty of Arts of Bonn University. With their texts, they connect the overall abstract academic discussions on globalization with the new orientations necessary in their respective field of studies and research. They understand this global challenge as a unique opportunity for their area of academic work.

Since 2009, the Center for European Integration Studies (ZEI) and several professors at the Faculty of Arts and at the Faculty of Protestant Theology of Bonn University are involved in a research project titled “Shaping Globality”. It deals with the implications of globalization on cultural and social sciences. This ZEI Discussion Paper is the third publication originating in the joint research project.

ZEI Discussion Paper C 203 includes contributions by Michael Bernsen (Romance Studies), Markus Gabriel (Philosophy), Dominik Geppert (European Contemporary History), Konrad Klaus (Indology), Harald Meyer (Japanology), Barbara Schmidt-Haberkamp (New English Literatures and Postcolonial Studies), Caja Thimm (Media Science) as well as Ludger Kühnhardt and Tilman Mayer (Political Science).

ZEI Discussion Paper C 202 / 2010

Europeanising EU Energy Policy   -  Günther H. Oettinger

ZEI Discussion Paper C 201 / 2010

Is the European Federation a “Mission Impossible”?   -  Uwe Leonardy

ZEI Discussion Paper C 200 / 2010

Pipelines, Drogen, Kampf ums Wasser - greift die EU-Zentralasien-Strategie? Neues „Great Game“ von Afghanistan bis zum Kaspischen Meer?   -  Klaus W. Grewlich

ZEI Discussion Paper C 199 / 2010

Frankreich - Deutschland - Polen: Partnerschaft im Herzen Europas   -  Wolfram Hilz / Catherine Robert (eds.)

ZEI Discussion Paper C 198 / 2010

Die Gestaltung der Globalität. Annäherungen an Begriff, Deutung und Methodik   -  Ludger Kühnhardt / Tilman Mayer

ZEI Discussion Paper C 197 / 2010

Europäische Integration aus historischer Erfahrung. Ein Zeitzeugengespräch mit Michael Gehler   -  Klaus Hänsch

ZEI Discussion Paper C 196 / 2009

Die Migrationspolitik der EU. Herausforderung zwischen nationaler Selbstbestimmung und europäischer Konvergenz   -  Ina Hommers

ZEI Discussion Paper C 195 / 2009

Die Gestaltung der Globalität. Neue Anfragen an die Geisteswissenschaften   -  Ludger Kühnhardt / Tilman Mayer (eds.)

ZEI Discussion Paper C 194 / 2009

The Eastern Partnership and Ukraine. New Label - Old Products?   -  Wiebke Drescher

ZEI Discussion Paper C 193 / 2009

Der Berg-Karabach-Konflikt nach der Unabhängigkeit des Kosovo   -  Aschot L. Manutscharjan

ZEI Discussion Paper C 192 / 2009

The Direct Election of the Commission President. A Presidential Approach to Democratising the European Union   -  Frank Decker / Jared Sonnicksen

ZEI Discussion Paper C 191 / 2009

Promoting Innovation in the European Union- On the Development of Sound Competition and Industrial Policies   -  Meredith Tunick

ZEI Discussion Paper C 190 / 2008

The 2007-2013 European Cohesion Policy. A New Strategic Approach by the Commission?   -  Sonja Schröder

ZEI Discussion Paper C 189 / 2008

Regionalisierung der Regulierung im Bitstromzugangs-Markt?   -  Carl Christian von Weizsäcker

ZEI Discussion Paper C 188 / 2008

Begriff und Idee der “Atlantischen Zivilisation” in Zeiten transatlantischer Zerreißproben   -  Lazaros Miliopoulos

ZEI Discussion Paper C 187 / 2008

Reflecting on the European Year of Intercultural Dialogue   -  Ján Figel

ZEI Discussion Paper C 186 / 2008

Europa der Bürger. Zeitzeugengespräche mit Peter Altmaier, Barbara Gessler, Ruth Hieronymiund Hans-Gert Pöttering   -  Jürgen Nielsen-Sikora

ZEI Discussion Paper C 185 / 2008

Europäische Union - Neue Impulse für die kommende Dekade   -  Hans-Gert Pöttering

ZEI Discussion Paper C 184 / 2008

African Regional Integration and the Role of the European Union   -  Ludger Kühnhardt

ZEI Discussion Paper C 183 / 2008

Subregionalism in the Black Sea and the EU s Role. Incentives, Obstacles and a 'New Synergy'   -  Yannis Tsantoulis

ZEI Discussion Paper C 182 / 2008

Recovering from the Constitutional Failure. An Analysis of the EU Reflection Period   -  Anna Niemann / Sonja Ana Luise Schröder / Meredith Catherine Tunick (eds.)

ZEI Discussion Paper C 181 / 2008

Making and Breaking Promises. The European Union under the Treaty of Lisbon   -  Marcus Höreth / Jared Sonnicksen

ZEI Discussion Paper C 180 / 2008

"The Jewish Enemy" Rethinking Anti-Semitism in the Era of Nazism and in Recent Times   -  Jeffrey Herf

ZEI Discussion Paper C 179 / 2008

Optionen für die Europäische Integration   -  Martin Seidel

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