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EU Glossary: Actors and Institutions

European Commission    EUCOMen

President

The President of the Commission shall lay down the guidelines within which the Commission shall work and decide on the internal organisation of the Commission. The president of the Commission is elected by the European Parliament and a majority in the European Council.

 

EU Commissioners and their "Project Teams"

Jean-Claude Juncker, has structured his Commission into the following "Project Teams".

Better Regulation and Interinstitutional Relations

“Coordinating the work on better regulation within the Commission, ensuring that every proposal respects the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality, which are at the heart of the Commission's work.” Jean-Claude Juncker  Mission Letter 

 All Commissioners are a member of this project team

                                                      

Commissioners

Elżbieta Bieńkowska Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs
Miguel Arias Cañete Climate Action and Energy
Corina Crețu Regional Policy
Pierre Moscovici Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs
Günther Oettinger Budget and Human Resources
Violeta Bulc Transport
Marianne Thyssen Employment, Social Affairs, Skills and Labour Mobility
Vytenis Andriukaitis Health and Food Safety
Dimitris Avramopoulos Migration, Home Affairs and Citizenship
Johannes Hahn European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations
Phil Hogan Agriculture and Rural Development
Věra Jourová Justice, Consumers and Gender Equality
Julian King Security Union
Cecilia Malmström Trade
Carlos Moedas Research, Science and Innovation
Tibor Navracsics Education, Culture, Youth and Sport
Karmenu Vella Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries
Margrethe Vestager Competition
Jyrki Katainen Jobs, Growth and Investment and Competitiveness
Andrus Ansip Digital Single Market
Maroš Šefčovič Energy Union
Valdis Dombrovskis Euro, Social Dialogue, Financial Stability, Financial Services and Capital Markets Union
Federica Mogherini High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy / Vice-President of the Commission
Christos Stylianides Humanitarian Aid & Crisis Management
Neven Mimica International Cooperation & Development

 

Jobs, Growth and Investment and Competitiveness

"My number one priority and the connecting thread running through each and every proposal will be getting Europe growing again and getting people back to decent jobs." Jean-Claude Juncker  -Political Guidelines

 

Commissioners Jobs, Growth and Investment and Competitiveness
Elżbieta Bieńkowska Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs
Miguel Arias Cañete Climate Action and Energy
Corina Crețu Regional Policy
Pierre Moscovici Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs
Günther Oettinger Budget and Human Resources
Violeta Bulc Transport
Marianne Thyssen Employment, Social Affairs, Skills and Labour Mobility
Vytenis Andriukaitis Health and Food Safety
Dimitris Avramopoulos Migration, Home Affairs and Citizenship
Johannes Hahn European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations
Phil Hogan Agriculture and Rural Development
Věra Jourová Justice, Consumers and Gender Equality
Cecilia Malmström Trade
Carlos Moedas Research, Science and Innovation
Tibor Navracsics Education, Culture, Youth and Sport
Karmenu Vella Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries
Margrethe Vestager Competition

 

Digital Single Market

"By creating a connected digital single market, we can generate up to € 250 billion of additional growth in Europe in the course of the mandate of the next Commission, thereby creating hundreds of thousands of new jobs, notably for younger job-seekers, and a vibrant knowledge-based society. The EU should become a leader in the creative industries, but in full respect of cultural diversity."Jean-Claude Juncker – Political Guidelines 

 

Commissioners Digital Single Market
Elżbieta Bieńkowska Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs
Corina Crețu Regional Policy
Phil Hogan Agriculture and Rural Development
Věra Jourová Justice, Consumers and Gender Equality
Pierre Moscovici Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs
Günther Oettinger Budget and Human Resources
Marianne Thyssen Employment, Social Affairs, Skills and Labour Mobility
Vytenis Andriukaitis Health and Food Safety
Carlos Moedas Research, Science and Innovation
Tibor Navracsics Education, Culture, Youth and Sport
Margrethe Vestager Competition

 

Energy Union

"I want to reform and reorganise Europe’s energy policy into a new European Energy Union. We need to pool our resources, combine our infrastructures and unite our negotiating power vis-à-vis third countries. We need to diversify our energy sources, and reduce the high energy dependency of several of our Member States." Jean-Claude Juncker -Political Guidelines 

 

Commissioners Energy Union
Elżbieta Bieńkowska Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs
Miguel Arias Cañete Climate Action and Energy
Corina Crețu Regional Policy
Phil Hogan Agriculture and Rural Development
Karmenu Vella Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries
Carlos Moedas Research, Science and Innovation
Violeta Bulc Transport
Věra Jourová Justice, Consumers and Gender Equality
Cecilia Malmström Trade
Günther Oettinger Budget and Human Resources
Pierre Moscovici Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs
Marianne Thyssen Employment, Social Affairs, Skills and Labour Mobility
Margrethe Vestager Competition

 

Euro and Social Dialogue

"The crisis has only been paused. We must make use of this pause to consolidate and complement the unprecedented measures we have taken during the crisis, simplify them and make them more socially legitimate. It is not compatible with the social market economy that during a crisis, ship-owners and speculators become even richer, while pensioners can no longer support themselves." Jean-Claude Juncker – Political Guidelines

 

Commissioners Euro and Social Dialogue
Elżbieta Bieńkowska Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs
Corina Crețu Regional Policy
Věra Jourová Justice, Consumers and Gender Equality
Pierre Moscovici Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs
Tibor Navracsics Education, Culture, Youth and Sport
Marianne Thyssen Employment, Social Affairs, Skills and Labour Mobility

 

Europe and the World

"We need better mechanisms in place to anticipate events early and to swiftly identify common responses. We need to be more effective in bringing together the tools of Europe’s external action. Trade policy, development aid, our participation in international financial institutions and our neighbourhood policy must be combined and activated according to one and the same logic." Jean-Claude Juncker  -Political Guidelines

 

Commissioners Europe and the World
Johannes Hahn European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations
Cecilia Malmström Trade
Neven Mimica International Cooperation and Development
Christos Stylianides Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Management
Dimitris Avramopoulos Migration, Home Affairs and Citizenship
Miguel Arias Cañete Climate Action and Energy
Violeta Bulc Transport

 

Budget and Human Resources

“You will help the Commission to demonstrate the value added of the EU budget and contribute to a stronger performance culture in relation to the EU budget, including by enhancing performance-based budgeting across the Commission.”Jean-Claude Juncker – Mission Letter 

 

 All Commissioners are a member of this project team

 

 

Commissioners

Elżbieta Bieńkowska Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs
Miguel Arias Cañete Climate Action and Energy
Corina Crețu Regional Policy
Pierre Moscovici Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs
Günther Oettinger Budget and Human Resources
Violeta Bulc Transport
Marianne Thyssen Employment, Social Affairs, Skills and Labour Mobility
Vytenis Andriukaitis Health and Food Safety
Dimitris Avramopoulos Migration, Home Affairs and Citizenship
Johannes Hahn European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations
Phil Hogan Agriculture and Rural Development
Věra Jourová Justice, Consumers and Gender Equality
Julian King Security Union
Cecilia Malmström Trade
Carlos Moedas Research, Science and Innovation
Tibor Navracsics Education, Culture, Youth and Sport
Karmenu Vella Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries
Margrethe Vestager Competition
Jyrki Katainen Jobs, Growth and Investment and Competitiveness
Andrus Ansip Digital Single Market
Maroš Šefčovič Energy Union
Valdis Dombrovskis Euro, Social Dialogue, Financial Stability, Financial Services and Capital Markets Union
Federica Mogherini Europe and the World
Frans Timmermans Better Regulation and Interinstitutional Relations
Christos Stylianides Humanitarian Aid & Crisis Management
Neven Mimica International Cooperation & Development

 

Roles and Responsibilities

Art.17 (1) TEU: The Commission shall promote the general interest of the Union and take appropriate initiatives to that end. It shall ensure the application of the Treaties, and of measures adopted by the institutions pursuant to them. It shall oversee the application of Union law under the control of the Court of Justice of the European Union. It shall execute the budget and manage programmes. It shall exercise coordinating, executive and management functions, as laid down in the Treaties. With the exception of the common foreign and security policy, and other cases provided for in the Treaties, it shall ensure the Union’s external representation. It shall initiate the Union’s annual and multiannual programming with a view to achieving interinstitutional agreements."

Appointment of Members

Art.17 (3) TEU: ,,The Commission’s term of office shall be five years. The members of the Commission shall be chosen on the ground of their general competence and European commitment from persons whose independence is beyond doubt. In carrying out its responsibilities, the Commission shall be completely independent. Without prejudice to Article 18(2), the members of the Commission shall neither seek nor take instructions from any Government or other institution, body, office or entity. They shall refrain from any action incompatible with their duties or the performance of their tasks." Art.17 (3) TEU

Art.17 (4) TEU: ,,The Commission appointed between the date of entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon and 31 October 2014, shall consist of one national of each Member State, including its President and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy who shall be one of its Vice- Presidents."

Art. 17 (5) TEU (This article has not been put into practice yet): ,,As from 1 November 2014, the Commission shall consist of a number of members, including its President and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, corresponding to two thirds of the number of Member States, unless the European Council, acting unanimously, decides to alter this number.
The members of the Commission shall be chosen from among the nationals of the Member States on the basis of a system of strictly equal rotation between the Member States, reflecting the demographic and geographical range of all the Member States. This system shall be established unanimously by the European Council in accordance with Article 244 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union."

Legal Bases

 

 

 

European Parliament  EP

President

The President is elected for a renewable term of two and a half years, i.e. half the lifetime of a Parliament. The President represents the European Parliament vis-à-vis the outside world and in its relations with the other EU institutions. 

  

Political Groups

Parliamentary Group Parliamentary Party Leader Seats
in
Parliament
Group of the European People's Party (EPP) Manfred Weber (CSU/Germany) 218
Group of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats in the European Parliament (S&D) Gianni Pittella (Partito Democratio/Italy) 190
Group of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) Guy Verhofstadt
(VLD/Belgium)
70
Group of the Greens/European Free Alliance (Greens/EFA) Rebecca Harms (The GREENS/Germany),Philippe Lamberts (Belgium) 52
European Conservatives and Reformists Group (ECR)  Syed Kamall (Conservative Party/England) 73
Confederal Group of the European United Left - Nordic Green Left(GUE/NGL)  Gabriele Zimmer (The LEFT/Germany) 50
Europe of Freedom and Democracy Group (EFD) Nigel Farage (UKIP/United Kingdom), David Borrelli (Five Star Movement/Italy) 45
Europe of Nations and Freedoms (ENF)  Marine Le Pen (Front National), Marcel de Graaff (Partij voor de Vrijheid)        36
Non-Attached - 17
 

Roles and Responsibilities

Art.14 (1) TEUV: ,,The European Parliament shall, jointly with the Council, exercise legislative and budgetary functions. It shall exercise functions of political control and consultation as laid down in the Treaties. It shall elect the President of the Commission." 

Members

Art. 14 (2) TEUV: ,,The European Parliament shall be composed of representatives of the Union’s citizens. They shall not exceed seven hundred and fifty in number, plus the President. Representation of citizens shall be degressively proportional, with a minimum threshold of six members per Member State. No Member State shall be allocated more than ninety-six seats. The European Council shall adopt by unanimity, on the initiative of the European Parliament and with its consent, a decision establishing the composition of the European Parliament, respecting the principles referred to in the first subparagraph.

Legal Bases

European CouncilEUEURat

President

On the 30 August 2014, Donald Tusk was unanimously elected by the EU heads of State and Governments as President of the European Council. As President he chairs the European Council meetings and drives its work forward. 

 

Member States of the European Council

Art. 15 (2) TEU:,,The European Council shall consist of the Heads of State or Government of the Member States, together with its President and the President of the Commission. The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy shall take part in its work."

 

Member state (year of entry) System of government/Government coalition Election Dates
Austria 
(1995)
Oesterreich.gif
Parliamentary system

Majority CoalitionSocial Democratic Party of Austria(PES/S&D), Austrian People's Party (EPP/EPP)

Head of Government (2008): Werner Faymann, Social Democratic Party of Austria, (PES)
Autumn 2018
Belgium 
(1957)
Belgien
Parliamentary system

´Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie (EKR),Mouvement Réformateur (ALDE), Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams (EVP),Open Vlaamse Liberalen en Democraten (ALDE)


Head of Government (2014): Charles Michel (MR)
Spring 2018
Bulgaria 
(2007)
Bulgarien
Unicameral parliamentary system
Minority Government GERB (EPP), Reformist Party (EPP),Alternative for Bulgarian Renaissance 

Head of Government (2014): Bozko Borissov (GERB)
Spring 2017
Cyprus 
(2004)
Zypern.gif

Presidential system


Majority Coalition: Dimokratikos Synagermos (EPP),  Solidarity Movement (AECR/ECR)

Head of State/Government (2008): Nicos Anastasiades,(Dimokratikos Synagermos) (EPP)
 

Spring 2021
Croatia
Kroatien
 
Parliamentary system

Majority coalition: Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ) and the Bridge of Independent Lists (MOST)

Head of Government (2016) : Andrej Plenković

(HDZ)

Autumn 2020
     
Czech Republic
(2004)
Tschechien.gif
Parliamentary system

Majority Coalition: Social Democrats, ANOChristian Democrats

Head of Government (2014): Bohuslav Sobotka (Social Democrats)
Autumn 2017
Denmark 
(1973)
Daenemark

Parliamentary system

Minority Government: Venstre (ALDE)

Head of Government (2015): Lars Lokke Rasmussen (Venstre)

Spring 2019
Estonia 
(2004)
Estland.gif
 
Parliamentary system

Majority Coalition:
Estonian Reform Party (ALDE)Social Democratic Party (PES)Pro Patrica and Res Publica Union(EPP)

Head of Government (2014): Taavi Röivas, Estonian Reform Party (ALDE)
Spring 2019
Finland 
(1995)
Finnland.gif
Majortiy CoalitionCentre Party (ALDE), Finns Party (ECR)and National Coalition Party (EPP)

 

Head of GovernmentJuhu Sipila (Centre Party)

 

Spring 2019
France 
(1957)
Frankreich.gif

Parliamentary system

Majority coalitionSocialist Party (PES/S&D), Europe Ecology - The Greens (EGP/The Greens-EFA), Radical Party of the Left 

Head of Government (2016): Bernard CazeneuveSocialist Party (PES

Head of State (2012): François Hollande, Socialist Party (PES)

Presidential Elections

1st round: 23rd of April 2017

2nd round: 7th of May 2017

Germany
(1957)
Deutschland
Parliamentary system

Majority coalitionChristian Democratic UnionSocial Democratic PartyChristian Social Union

Head of GovernmentAngela Merkel,  (Christian Democratic Union)
Autumn 2017
Greece 
(1981)
Griechenland.gif
Parliamentary system

Majority coalitionCoalition of the Radical Left SYRIZA  (GUE/NGL)Unabhängige Griechen ANEL(EKR)

 

Head of Government (2015): Alexis Tsipras, Coalition of the Radical Left SYRIZA  (GUE/NGL)

Autumn 2019
Hungary 
(2004)
Ungarn.gif
Parliamentary system

Majority coalitionFidesz -  Hungarian Civic Union (EPP/EPP),Christian Democratic People's Party (EPP/EPP)

Head of Government (2010): Viktor OrbánFidesz - Hungarian Civic Union (EPP)
Spring 2018
Ireland
(1973)
Irland.gif
Parliamentary system

Minority GovernmentFine Gael - Family of the Irish (EPP/EPP)

Head of Government (2011): Enda Kenny, Fine Gael - Family of the Irish (EPP)
Spring 2021
Italy 
(1957)
Italien.gif
Parliamentary system

Majority coalitionDemocratic Party (S&D), New-Centre Right(-/-),  Civic Choice (-/-)

Head of Government (2014): Matteo Renzi,  Democratic Party(S&D)
Spring 2018
Latvia 
(2004)
Lettland.gif
Parliamentary system

Majority coalitionUnity (EPP/EPP), Reform Party (-/), National Alliance "All For Latvia!" - "For Fatherland and Freedom/LNNK"(AECR/ECR), Union of Greens and Farmers

Head of Government (2016): Māris Kučinskis, Union of Greens and Farmers (EGP)
Autumn 2018
Lithuania 
(2004)
Litauen.gif
Parliamentary system

Majority coalition: Lithuanian Peasant and Green Union (LPGU), Lithuanian Social Democratic Party (PES/S&D),

Head of Government (2016): Saulius Skvernelis

Lithuanian Peasant and Green Union (LPGU)
Autumn 2020
Luxembourg(1957)
Luxemburg.gif
Parliamentary system

Majority Coalition: Democratic PartyLuxembourg Socialist Workers' PartyThe Greens

Head of GovernmentXavier Bettel, Democratic Party (ALDE)
Autumn 2018
Malta
(2004)
Malta.gif
Parliamentary system

One-Party majority in the House of Representatives:  Malta Labour Party

Head of Government (2013): Joseph Muscat, Malta Labour Party 
(PES)
Spring 2018
Netherlands(1957)
Niederlande.gif
Parliamentary system

Majority coalition: People's Party for Freedom and Democracy(ALDE/ALDE), Labour Party (PES/S&D)

Head of Government (2010): Mark Rutte,
People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (ALDE)
 
15th of March 2017
Poland
(2004)
Polen
Parliamentary system

Single Party Government: Law and Justice Party (AECR/ECR)

Head of Government (2015): Beata Szydlo, Law and Justic Party (AECR/ECR)
Autumn 2019
Portugal 
(1986)
Portugal
Parliamentary system

Minority Government consisting of the Socialist Party (S&D), the communist-green Unitary Democratic Coalition (CDU) and the Left Bloc (B.E.)

Head of Government (2015): António Costa, Socialist Party (S&D)
Autumn 2019
Romania 
(2007)
Rumaenien.gif
Unitary semi-presidential system

Technocrat Cabinet

Head of Government (2015): Dacian Cioloș, politically independent, affiliated with the EPP

 
11th of December 2016
Slovakia
(2004)
Slowakei.gif
Parliamentary system

Majority CoalitionDirection - Social Democracy(PES/S&D), nationalist Slovak National Party SNS, Hungarian Most-Hid Party (EPP), centre-right Network Siet Party (EPP)

Head of Government (2012): Robert Fico, Direction - Social Democracy (PES)
Spring 2020
Slovenia 
(2004)
Slowenien.gif
Parliamentary system

Majority Coalition: Stranka Mira Cerarja, Democratic Party of Slovenian PensionersSocial Democrats

Head of Government (2014): Miro CerarStranka Mira Cerarja
Summer/Autumn 2018
Spain
(1986)
Espana.gif
Parliamentary system

Single Party GovernmentPeople's Party (EPP/EPP)

Head of Government (2011): Mariano Rajoy, People's Party (EPP)

 
Autumn 2015
Sweden 
(1995)
Schweden.gif

Parliamentary system

Autumn 2018
United Kingdom 
(1973)
England.gif
Parliamentary system

Single Party GovernmentConservative Party (AECR/ECR)

Head of Government (2016): Theresa May, Conservative Party(AECR)
Spring 2020

Roles and Responsibilities

Art.15 (1) TEU: ,,The European Council shall provide the Union with the necessary impetus for its development and shall define the general political directions and priorities thereof. It shall not exercise legislative functions."

With the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon on 1 December 2009, the European Council became an official EU institution.

Legal Bases

 

 Council of the European UnionEURat

Rotating Presidency

The Presidency of the Council of the European Union rotates among the EU member states every six months. During the six month period, the presidency chairs meetings at every level in the Council of the European Union (together with the European Parliament the legislative organ of the EU), helping to ensure the continuity of the EU's work in the Council.

 

Council presidencies up to 2020

2015

Latvia: January-June 2015
Luxembourg: July-December 2015

2016

Netherlands: January-June 2016
Slovakia: July-December 2016

2017

Malta: January-June 2017
Estonia (replacing the United Kingdom): July-December 2017

2018

Bulgaria: January-June 2018
Austria: July-December 2018
 

2019

Romania: January-June 2019
Finland: July-December 2019
 

2020

Croatia: January-June 2020

Germany: July-December 2020

 

Role and Responsibilities

Art.16 (1) TEU: ,,The Council shall, jointly with the European Parliament, exercise legislative and budgetary functions. It shall carry out policy-making and coordinating functions as laid down in the Treaties."

Members

Art. 16 (2) TEU: ,,The Council shall consist of a representative of each Member State at ministerial level, who may commit the government of the Member State in question and cast its vote."

Legal Bases

 

Court of Justice  EUGh

President

The judges of the Court of Justice are appointed by common accord of the governments of the Member States for six years. The President of the Court of Justice is elected from and by the judges for a renewable term of three years. He presides over hearings and deliberations of the full Court or the Grand Chamber, directing both judicial business and administration. He also assigns cases to the chambers for examination and appoints judges as rapporteurs. 

 

Role and Responsibilities

Art.19 (1) TEU: ,,The Court of Justice of the European Union shall include the Court of Justice, the General Court and specialised courts. It shall ensure that in the interpretation and application of the Treaties the law is observed. Member States shall provide remedies sufficient to ensure effective legal protection in the fields covered by Union law."

Art. 19 (3) TEU: ,,The Court of Justice of the European Union shall, in accordance with the Treaties:
(a) rule on actions brought by a Member State, an institution or a natural or legal person;
(b) give preliminary rulings, at the request of courts or tribunals of the Member States, on the interpretation of Union law or the validity of acts adopted by the institutions;
(c) rule in other cases provided for in the Treaties."

Members

Art.19 (2) TEU: ,,The Court of Justice shall consist of one judge from each Member State. It shall be assisted by Advocates-General. The General Court shall include at least one judge per Member State. The Judges and the Advocates-General of the Court of Justice and the Judges of the General Court shall be chosen from persons whose independence is beyond doubt and who satisfy the conditions set out in Articles 253 and 254 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. They shall be appointed by common accord of the governments of the Member States for six years. Retiring Judges and Advocates-General may be reappointed."

Legal Bases

 

 

European Central Bank  ECBen

President

The President heads the executive board, governing council and general council of the European Central Bank. He is not elected by popular vote, rather the President is appointed by the European Council, for an eight-year non-renewable term. 

 

Role and Responsibilities

Art. 282 (1) TFEU: ,,The European Central Bank, together with the national central banks, shall constitute the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). The European Central Bank, together with the national central banks of the Member States whose currency is the euro, which constitute the Eurosystem, shall conduct the monetary policy of the Union."

Art. 282 (2) TFEU: ,,The ESCB shall be governed by the decision-making bodies of the European Central Bank. The primary objective of the ESCB shall be to maintain price stability. Without prejudice to that objective, it shall support the general economic policies in the Union in order to contribute to the achievement of the latter’s objectives."

Members

Art 283 (2)TFEU: “The Governing Council of the European Central Bank shall comprise the members of the Executive Board of the European Central Bank and the Governors of the national central banks of the Member States whose currency is the euro.”

Art 283 (2)TFEU: “The Executive Board shall comprise the President, the Vice-President and four other members. The President, the Vice-President and the other members of the Executive Board shall be appointed by the European Council, acting by a qualified majority, from among persons of recognised standing and professional experience in monetary or banking matters, on a recommendation from the Council, after it has consulted the European Parliament and the Governing Council of the European Central Bank. Their term of office shall be eight years and shall not be renewable. Only nationals of Member States may be members of the Executive Board”

Legal Bases

 

 

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