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EU Glossary: Actors and Institutions

European Commission    EUCOMen

President

The President of the Commission shall lay down the guidelines within which the Commission shall work and decide on the internal organisation of the Commission. The President of the Commission is elected by the European Parliament and a majority in the European Council.

 

EU Commissioners and their "Project Teams"

Jean-Claude Juncker, has structured his Commission into the following "Project Teams". Commissioners are members of "Project Teams", which are led by Vice-Presidents.

Better Regulation and Interinstitutional Relations

“Coordinating the work on better regulation within the Commission, ensuring that every proposal respects the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality, which are at the heart of the Commission's work.” Jean-Claude Juncker  Mission Letter 

 

All Commissioners are a member of this project team

                                                      

Commissioners

Elżbieta Bieńkowska Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs
Miguel Arias Cañete Climate Action and Energy
Corina Crețu Regional Policy
Pierre Moscovici Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs
Günther Oettinger Budget and Human Resources
Violeta Bulc Transport
Marianne Thyssen Employment, Social Affairs, Skills and Labour Mobility
Vytenis Andriukaitis Health and Food Safety
Dimitris Avramopoulos Migration, Home Affairs and Citizenship
Johannes Hahn European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations
Phil Hogan Agriculture and Rural Development
Věra Jourová Justice, Consumers and Gender Equality
Julian King Security Union
Cecilia Malmström Trade
Carlos Moedas Research, Science and Innovation
Tibor Navracsics Education, Culture, Youth and Sport
Karmenu Vella Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries
Margrethe Vestager Competition
Jyrki Katainen Jobs, Growth and Investment and Competitiveness
Andrus Ansip Digital Single Market
Mariya Gabriel Digital Economy and Society
Maroš Šefčovič Energy Union
Valdis Dombrovskis Euro, Social Dialogue, Financial Stability, Financial Services and Capital Markets Union
Federica Mogherini High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy / Vice-President of the Commission
Christos Stylianides Humanitarian Aid & Crisis Management
Neven Mimica International Cooperation & Development

 

Jobs, Growth and Investment and Competitiveness

"My number one priority and the connecting thread running through each and every proposal will be getting Europe growing again and getting people back to decent jobs." Jean-Claude Juncker  -Political Guidelines

 

Commissioners Jobs, Growth and Investment and Competitiveness
Elżbieta Bieńkowska Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs
Miguel Arias Cañete Climate Action and Energy
Corina Crețu Regional Policy
Pierre Moscovici Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs
Günther Oettinger Budget and Human Resources
Mariya Gabriel Digital Economy and Society
Violeta Bulc Transport
Marianne Thyssen Employment, Social Affairs, Skills and Labour Mobility
Vytenis Andriukaitis Health and Food Safety
Dimitris Avramopoulos Migration, Home Affairs and Citizenship
Johannes Hahn European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations
Phil Hogan Agriculture and Rural Development
Věra Jourová Justice, Consumers and Gender Equality
Cecilia Malmström Trade
Carlos Moedas Research, Science and Innovation
Tibor Navracsics Education, Culture, Youth and Sport
Karmenu Vella Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries
Margrethe Vestager Competition

 

Digital Single Market

"By creating a connected digital single market, we can generate up to € 250 billion of additional growth in Europe in the course of the mandate of the next Commission, thereby creating hundreds of thousands of new jobs, notably for younger job-seekers, and a vibrant knowledge-based society. The EU should become a leader in the creative industries, but in full respect of cultural diversity."Jean-Claude Juncker – Political Guidelines 

 

Commissioners Digital Single Market
Mariya Gabriel Digital Economy and Society
Elżbieta Bieńkowska Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs
Corina Crețu Regional Policy
Phil Hogan Agriculture and Rural Development
Věra Jourová Justice, Consumers and Gender Equality
Pierre Moscovici Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs
Günther Oettinger Budget and Human Resources
Marianne Thyssen Employment, Social Affairs, Skills and Labour Mobility
Vytenis Andriukaitis Health and Food Safety
Carlos Moedas Research, Science and Innovation
Tibor Navracsics Education, Culture, Youth and Sport
Margrethe Vestager Competition

 

Energy Union

"I want to reform and reorganise Europe’s energy policy into a new European Energy Union. We need to pool our resources, combine our infrastructures and unite our negotiating power vis-à-vis third countries. We need to diversify our energy sources, and reduce the high energy dependency of several of our Member States." Jean-Claude Juncker -Political Guidelines 

 

Commissioners Energy Union
Elżbieta Bieńkowska Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs
Miguel Arias Cañete Climate Action and Energy
Corina Crețu Regional Policy
Mariya Gabriel Digital Economy and Society
Phil Hogan Agriculture and Rural Development
Karmenu Vella Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries
Carlos Moedas Research, Science and Innovation
Violeta Bulc Transport
Věra Jourová Justice, Consumers and Gender Equality
Cecilia Malmström Trade
Günther Oettinger Budget and Human Resources
Pierre Moscovici Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs
Marianne Thyssen Employment, Social Affairs, Skills and Labour Mobility
Margrethe Vestager Competition

 

Euro and Social Dialogue

"The crisis has only been paused. We must make use of this pause to consolidate and complement the unprecedented measures we have taken during the crisis, simplify them and make them more socially legitimate. It is not compatible with the social market economy that during a crisis, ship-owners and speculators become even richer, while pensioners can no longer support themselves." Jean-Claude Juncker – Political Guidelines

 

Commissioners Euro and Social Dialogue
Elżbieta Bieńkowska Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs
Corina Crețu Regional Policy
Věra Jourová Justice, Consumers and Gender Equality
Pierre Moscovici Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs
Tibor Navracsics Education, Culture, Youth and Sport
Marianne Thyssen Employment, Social Affairs, Skills and Labour Mobility

 

Europe and the World

"We need better mechanisms in place to anticipate events early and to swiftly identify common responses. We need to be more effective in bringing together the tools of Europe’s external action. Trade policy, development aid, our participation in international financial institutions and our neighbourhood policy must be combined and activated according to one and the same logic." Jean-Claude Juncker  -Political Guidelines

 

Commissioners Europe and the World
Johannes Hahn European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations
Cecilia Malmström Trade
Neven Mimica International Cooperation and Development
Christos Stylianides Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Management
Dimitris Avramopoulos Migration, Home Affairs and Citizenship
Miguel Arias Cañete Climate Action and Energy
Violeta Bulc Transport

 

Budget and Human Resources

“You will help the Commission to demonstrate the value added of the EU budget and contribute to a stronger performance culture in relation to the EU budget, including by enhancing performance-based budgeting across the Commission.”Jean-Claude Juncker – Mission Letter 

 

 All Commissioners are a member of this project team

 

 

Commissioners

Elżbieta Bieńkowska Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs
Miguel Arias Cañete Climate Action and Energy
Corina Crețu Regional Policy
Mariya Gabriel Digital Economy and Society
Pierre Moscovici Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs
Günther Oettinger Budget and Human Resources
Violeta Bulc Transport
Marianne Thyssen Employment, Social Affairs, Skills and Labour Mobility
Vytenis Andriukaitis Health and Food Safety
Dimitris Avramopoulos Migration, Home Affairs and Citizenship
Johannes Hahn European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations
Phil Hogan Agriculture and Rural Development
Věra Jourová Justice, Consumers and Gender Equality
Julian King Security Union
Cecilia Malmström Trade
Carlos Moedas Research, Science and Innovation
Tibor Navracsics Education, Culture, Youth and Sport
Karmenu Vella Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries
Margrethe Vestager Competition
Jyrki Katainen Jobs, Growth and Investment and Competitiveness
Andrus Ansip Digital Single Market
Maroš Šefčovič Energy Union
Valdis Dombrovskis Euro, Social Dialogue, Financial Stability, Financial Services and Capital Markets Union
Federica Mogherini Europe and the World
Frans Timmermans Better Regulation and Interinstitutional Relations
Christos Stylianides Humanitarian Aid & Crisis Management
Neven Mimica International Cooperation & Development

 

Roles and Responsibilities

Art.17 (1) TEU: The Commission shall promote the general interest of the Union and take appropriate initiatives to that end. It shall ensure the application of the Treaties, and of measures adopted by the institutions pursuant to them. It shall oversee the application of Union law under the control of the Court of Justice of the European Union. It shall execute the budget and manage programmes. It shall exercise coordinating, executive and management functions, as laid down in the Treaties. With the exception of the common foreign and security policy, and other cases provided for in the Treaties, it shall ensure the Union’s external representation. It shall initiate the Union’s annual and multiannual programming with a view to achieving interinstitutional agreements."

Appointment of Members

A new College of Commissioners is appointed every five years. The current team is in office until the 31st of October 2019

Art. 17 (7) TEU: "Taking into account the elections to the European Parliament and after having held the appropriate consultations, the European Council, acting by a qualified majority, shall propose to the European Parliament a candidate for President of the Commission. This candidate shall be elected by the European Parliament by a majority of its component members. If he does not obtain the required majority, the European Council, acting by a qualified majority, shall within one month propose a new candidate who shall be elected by the European Parliament following the same procedure. The Council, by common accord with the President-elect, shall adopt the list of the other persons whom it proposes for appointment as members of the Commission. They shall be selected, on the basis of the suggestions made by Member States, in accordance with the criteria set out in paragraph 3, second subparagraph, and paragraph 5, second subparagraph. The President, the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and the other members of the Commission shall be subject as a body to a vote of consent by the European Parliament. On the basis of this consent the Commission shall be appointed by the European Council, acting by a qualified majority.

Art.17 (3) TEU: ,,The Commission’s term of office shall be five years. The members of the Commission shall be chosen on the ground of their general competence and European commitment from persons whose independence is beyond doubt. In carrying out its responsibilities, the Commission shall be completely independent. Without prejudice to Article 18(2), the members of the Commission shall neither seek nor take instructions from any Government or other institution, body, office or entity. They shall refrain from any action incompatible with their duties or the performance of their tasks."

Art.17 (4) TEU: ,,The Commission appointed between the date of entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon and 31 October 2014, shall consist of one national of each Member State, including its President and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy who shall be one of its Vice- Presidents."

Art. 17 (5) TEU (This article has not been put into practice yet): ,,As from 1 November 2014, the Commission shall consist of a number of members, including its President and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, corresponding to two thirds of the number of Member States, unless the European Council, acting unanimously, decides to alter this number. The members of the Commission shall be chosen from among the nationals of the Member States on the basis of a system of strictly equal rotation between the Member States, reflecting the demographic and geographical range of all the Member States. This system shall be established unanimously by the European Council in accordance with Article 244 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union."

Legal Bases

 

European Parliament  EP

President

The President is elected for a renewable term of two and a half years, i.e. half the regular term of the Parliament. The President represents the European Parliament vis-à-vis the outside world and in its relations with the other EU institutions. 

  

Political Groups

Parliamentary Group Parliamentary Party Leader Seats
in
Parliament
European People's Party (EPP) Manfred Weber (CSU/Germany) 182
Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats in the European Parliament (S&D) Iratxe García Pérez (PSOE/Spain) 154
Renew Europe (ALDE) Dacian Ciolos
(PLUS / Romania)
108
Greens/European Free Alliance (Greens/EFA) Ska Keller (Die Grünen/Germany), Philippe Lamberts (Ecolo / Belgium) 74
Identity and Democracy (ID) Marco Zanni (Lega / Italy) 73
European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) Ryszard Legutko (PiS / Poland), Raffaele Fitto (Direzione Italia) 62
Confederal Group of the European United Left - Nordic Green Left(GUE/NGL) Martin Schirdewan (Die Linke/Germany) 41
Non-Inscrits (NI) = Non-attached members - 57

  

Committees and Committee Chairs

Committee Committee Chairs
AFET- Foreign Affairs

David McAllister (EPP, Germany)

Subcommitee SEDE - Security and Defence Nathalie Loiseau (Renew, France)

Subcommitee DROI - Human Rights

Maria Arena (S&D, Belgium)

DEVE - Development

Tomas Tobé (EPP, Sweden)

INTA - International Trade

Bernd Lange (S&D, Germany)

BUDG - Budgets

Johan van Overtveldt (ECR, Belgium)

CONT - Budgetary Control

Monika Hohlmeier (EPP, Germany)

ECON - Economic and Monetary Affairs

Roberto Gualtieri (S&D, Italy)

EMPL - Employment and Social Affairs

Lucia Ďuriš Nicholsonová (ECR, Slovakia)

ENVI - Environment, Public Health and Food Safety

Pascal Canfin (Renew, France)

ITRE - Industry, Research and Energy

Adina-Ioana Vălean (EPP, Romania)

IMCO - Internal Market and Consumer Protection

Petra de Sutter (Greens / EFA, Belgium)

TRAN - Transport and Tourism

Karima Delli (Greens / EFA, France)

REGI - Regional Development

Younous Omarjee (GUE / NGL, La Reunion - France)

AGRI - Agriculture and Rural Development

Norbert Lins (EPP, Germany)

PECH - Fisheries

Chris Davies (Renew, United Kingdom)

CULT - Culture and Education

Sabine Verheyen (EPP, Germany)

JURI - Legal Affairs

Lucy Nethsingha (Renew, United Kingdom)

LIBE - Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs

Juan Fernando López Aguilar (S&D, Spain)

AFCO - Constitutional Affairs

Antonio Tajani (EPP, Italy)

FEMM - Women's Rights and Gender Equality

Evelyn Regner (S&D, Austria)

PETI - Petitions

Dolors Montserrat (EPP, Spain)
 

Roles and Responsibilities

Art.14 (1) TEUV: ,,The European Parliament shall, jointly with the Council, exercise legislative and budgetary functions. It shall exercise functions of political control and consultation as laid down in the Treaties. It shall elect the President of the Commission." 

Members

Art. 14 (2) TEUV: ,,The European Parliament shall be composed of representatives of the Union’s citizens. They shall not exceed seven hundred and fifty in number, plus the President. Representation of citizens shall be degressively proportional, with a minimum threshold of six members per Member State. No Member State shall be allocated more than ninety-six seats. The European Council shall adopt by unanimity, on the initiative of the European Parliament and with its consent, a decision establishing the composition of the European Parliament, respecting the principles referred to in the first subparagraph.

Rules of Procedure and Legal Bases

European CouncilEUEURat

President

On the 30 August 2014, Donald Tusk was unanimously elected by the EU heads of State and Governments as President of the European Council. As President he chairs the European Council meetings and drives its work forward. 

 

Member States of the European Council

Art. 15 (2) TEU:,,The European Council shall consist of the Heads of State or Government of the Member States, together with its President and the President of the Commission. The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy shall take part in its work."

 

Member state

 (year of entry)

System of government/Government coalition
Austria 
(1995)
Oesterreich.gif
Parliamentary system

Acting Technocratic Government

Head of Government (in office since 2019): Brigitte Bierlein (close to the ÖVP)
Belgium 
(1957)
Belgien
Parliamentary system

´Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie (EKR),Mouvement Réformateur (ALDE), Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams (EVP),Open Vlaamse Liberalen en Democraten (ALDE)


Head of Government (2014): Charles Michel (MR)
Bulgaria 
(2007)
Bulgarien
Unicameral parliamentary system
Minority Government GERB (EPP), Reformist Party (EPP),Alternative for Bulgarian Renaissance 

Head of Government (2014): Boyko Borissov (GERB)
Cyprus 
(2004)
Zypern.gif

Presidential system


Majority Coalition: Dimokratikos Synagermos (EPP),  Solidarity Movement (AECR/ECR)

Head of State/Government (2008): Nicos Anastasiades,(Dimokratikos Synagermos) (EPP)
 

Croatia
Croatia
 
Parliamentary system

Majority coalition: Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ) and the Bridge of Independent Lists (MOST)

Head of Government (2016) : Andrej Plenković

(HDZ)

Czech Republic
(2004)
Tschechien.gif
Parliamentary system

Majority Coalition: ANO supported by the Social Democrats and the Communist Party

Head of Government (2018): Andrej Babis (ANO)
Denmark 
(1973)
Daenemark

Parliamentary system

Minority Government of Socialdemokratiet tolerated by the Socialist People’s Party, the Red-Green Alliance and the Social-Liberal Party

Head of Government (2019): Mette Frederiksen, Socialdemokratiet (S&D)
Estonia 
(2004)
Estland.gif
 
Parliamentary system

Majority Coaltion: Estonian Centre Party (ALDE), Conservative People's Party of Estonia-EKRE (EVP), Isamaa-Party

Head of Government (2016): Jüri Ratas, Estonian Centre Party (ALDE)
Finland 
(1995)
Finnland.gif

Semi-presidential system

Majority Coalition: Social Democratic Party (SDP /PES) with the Centre Party (ALDE), Green League (EGP), the Swedish People's Party of Finland (ALDE) and National Coalition Party (EPP)

Head of Government (2019): Antti Rinne (PES

France 
(1957)
Frankreich.gif

Parliamentary system

Head of Government (2017): Édouard Philippe, Les Républicains

Head of State (2017): Emmanuel Macron, En Marche

Germany
(1957)
Deutschland
Parliamentary system

Majority coalitionChristian Democratic UnionSocial Democratic PartyChristian Social Union

Head of GovernmentAngela Merkel,  (Christian Democratic Union)
Greece 
(1981)
Griechenland.gif
Parliamentary system

Single Party Government of the Nea Dimokratia  (EPP)
 
Head of Government (2019): Kyriakos Mitsotakis, Nea Dimokratia (EPP)
Hungary 
(2004)
Ungarn.gif
Parliamentary system

Majority coalitionFidesz -  Hungarian Civic Union (EPP/EPP),Christian Democratic People's Party (EPP/EPP)

Head of Government (2010): Viktor OrbánFidesz - Hungarian Civic Union (EPP)
Ireland
(1973)
Irland.gif
Parliamentary system

Minority GovernmentFine Gael - Family of the Irish (EPP/EPP)

Head of Government (2011): Leo VaradkarFine Gael - Family of the Irish (EPP)
Italy 
(1957)
Italien.gif

Parliamentary system

Majority Coalition: Five Star Movement and the League


Head of
Government (2018): Giuseppe Conte

Latvia 
(2004)
Lettland.gif
Parliamentary system

Majority coalitionUnity (EPP/EPP), Reform Party (-/), National Alliance "All For Latvia!" - "For Fatherland and Freedom/LNNK" (AECR/ECR), Union of Greens and Farmers, Liepāja Party


Head of Government (2019): Krišjānis Kariņš, Unity (EPP/EPP)

Lithuania 
(2004)
Litauen.gif
Parliamentary system

Majority coalition: Lithuanian Peasant and Green Union (LPGU), Lithuanian Social Democratic Party (PES/S&D),

Head of Government (2016): Saulius Skvernelis

Lithuanian Peasant and Green Union (LPGU)
Luxembourg(1957)
Luxemburg.gif
Parliamentary system

Majority Coalition: Democratic PartyLuxembourg Socialist Workers' PartyThe Greens

Head of Government (2013): Xavier Bettel, Democratic Party (ALDE)
Malta
(2004)
Malta.gif
Parliamentary system

One-Party majority in the House of Representatives:  Malta Labour Party

Head of Government (2013): Joseph Muscat, Malta Labour Party 
(PES)
Netherlands(1957)
Niederlande.gif
Parliamentary system

Majority coalition: People's Party for Freedom and Democracy(ALDE/ALDE), Labour Party (PES/S&D)

Head of Government (2010): Mark Rutte,
People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (ALDE)
Poland
(2004)
Polen
Parliamentary system

Single Party Government: Law and Justice Party (AECR/ECR)

Head of Government (2018): Mateusz Morawiecki, Law and Justice Party (AECR/ECR)
Portugal 
(1986)
Portugal
Parliamentary system

Minority Government consisting of the Socialist Party (S&D), the communist-green Unitary Democratic Coalition (CDU) and the Left Bloc (B.E.)

Head of Government (2015): António Costa, Socialist Party (S&D)
Romania 
(2007)
Rumaenien.gif
Unitary semi-presidential system

Majority Coalition: Socialdemocratic Party (PSD) and Liberal Party (ALDE)

Head of
Government (2018): Viorica Dancila, Socialdemocratic Party (PSD)
 
Slovakia
(2004)
Slowakei.gif
Parliamentary system

Majority CoalitionDirection - Social Democracy(PES/S&D), nationalist Slovak National Party SNS, Hungarian Most-Hid Party (EPP), centre-right Network Siet Party (EPP)

Head of Government (since 2018): Peter PellegriniDirection - Social Democracy (PES)
Slovenia 
(2004)
Slowenien.gif
Parliamentary system

Minority Government: Marjan Šarec List (LMŠ), Democratic Party of Slovenian Pensioners, Social Democrats, Party of Modern Centre (SMC), Alenka Bratušek Party (SAB)

Head of Minority Government (2018): Marjan Šarec, List of Marjan Šarec (ALDE)
Spain
(1986)
Espana.gif
Parliamentary system

Minority Government: Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, PSOE (PES)

Head of Government (2018): Pedro Sánchez Pérez-Castejón, Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PES)
 
Sweden 
(1995)
Schweden.gif

Parliamentary system

United Kingdom 
(1973)
England.gif
Parliamentary system

Single Party GovernmentConservative Party (AECR/ECR)

Head of Government (2016): Theresa May, Conservative Party(AECR)

Distribution of Votes - Political Alignment of the Dominant Governing Party

European Peoples Party (EPP)

Party of European Socialists (PES)

Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party (ALDE)

Independent


Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe (ACRE)
Bulgaria

Denmark

Belgium

 Italy

Poland

Croatia

Finland

Estonia

 Lithuania  

United Kingdom

Cyprus

Malta

Czech Republic

 Austria  

Germany

Portugal

France

   
Greece

Slovakia

Luxembourg    

Hungary

Spain

The Netherlands    

Ireland

Sweden

Slovenia    
Latvia        

Romania (represented by President Klaus Johannis, EPP)

 

 

   
   

 

   
   

 

   
   

 

   
         

9

7

7

3

2

 

Roles and Responsibilities

Art.15 (1) TEU: ,,The European Council shall provide the Union with the necessary impetus for its development and shall define the general political directions and priorities thereof. It shall not exercise legislative functions."

With the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon on 1 December 2009, the European Council became an official EU institution.

Legal bases and rules of procedure

 

 Council of the European UnionEURat

Rotating Presidency

The Presidency of the Council of the European Union rotates among the EU member states every six months. During the six month period, the presidency chairs meetings at every level in the Council of the European Union (together with the European Parliament the legislative organ of the EU), helping to ensure the continuity of the EU's work in the Council.

 

Council presidencies up to 2020

2015

Latvia: January-June 2015


Luxembourg: July-December 2015

2016

Netherlands: January-June 2016


Slovakia: July-December 2016

2017

Malta: January-June 2017


Estonia (replacing the United Kingdom): July-December 2017

2018

Bulgaria: January-June 2018


Austria: July-December 2018
 

2019

Romania: January-June 2019


Finland: July-December 2019
 

2020

Croatia: January-June 2020

 

Germany: July-December 2020

 

Role and Responsibilities

Art.16 (1) TEU: ,,The Council shall, jointly with the European Parliament, exercise legislative and budgetary functions. It shall carry out policy-making and coordinating functions as laid down in the Treaties."

Members

Art. 16 (2) TEU: ,,The Council shall consist of a representative of each Member State at ministerial level, who may commit the government of the Member State in question and cast its vote."

Legal Bases

 

Court of Justice  EUGh

President

The judges of the Court of Justice are appointed by common accord of the governments of the Member States for six years. The President of the Court of Justice is elected from and by the judges for a renewable term of three years. He presides over hearings and deliberations of the full Court or the Grand Chamber, directing both judicial business and administration. He also assigns cases to the chambers for examination and appoints judges as rapporteurs. 

 

Role and Responsibilities

Art.19 (1) TEU: ,,The Court of Justice of the European Union shall include the Court of Justice, the General Court and specialised courts. It shall ensure that in the interpretation and application of the Treaties the law is observed. Member States shall provide remedies sufficient to ensure effective legal protection in the fields covered by Union law."

Art. 19 (3) TEU: ,,The Court of Justice of the European Union shall, in accordance with the Treaties:
(a) rule on actions brought by a Member State, an institution or a natural or legal person;
(b) give preliminary rulings, at the request of courts or tribunals of the Member States, on the interpretation of Union law or the validity of acts adopted by the institutions;
(c) rule in other cases provided for in the Treaties."

Members

Art.19 (2) TEU: ,,The Court of Justice shall consist of one judge from each Member State. It shall be assisted by Advocates-General. The General Court shall include at least one judge per Member State. The Judges and the Advocates-General of the Court of Justice and the Judges of the General Court shall be chosen from persons whose independence is beyond doubt and who satisfy the conditions set out in Articles 253 and 254 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. They shall be appointed by common accord of the governments of the Member States for six years. Retiring Judges and Advocates-General may be reappointed."

Legal Bases

 

 

European Central Bank  ECBen

President

The President heads the executive board, governing council and general council of the European Central Bank. He is not elected by popular vote, rather the President is appointed by the European Council, for an eight-year non-renewable term. 

 

Role and Responsibilities

Art. 282 (1) TFEU: ,,The European Central Bank, together with the national central banks, shall constitute the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). The European Central Bank, together with the national central banks of the Member States whose currency is the euro, which constitute the Eurosystem, shall conduct the monetary policy of the Union."

Art. 282 (2) TFEU: ,,The ESCB shall be governed by the decision-making bodies of the European Central Bank. The primary objective of the ESCB shall be to maintain price stability. Without prejudice to that objective, it shall support the general economic policies in the Union in order to contribute to the achievement of the latter’s objectives."

Members

Art 283 (2)TFEU: “The Governing Council of the European Central Bank shall comprise the members of the Executive Board of the European Central Bank and the Governors of the national central banks of the Member States whose currency is the euro.”

Art 283 (2)TFEU: “The Executive Board shall comprise the President, the Vice-President and four other members. The President, the Vice-President and the other members of the Executive Board shall be appointed by the European Council, acting by a qualified majority, from among persons of recognised standing and professional experience in monetary or banking matters, on a recommendation from the Council, after it has consulted the European Parliament and the Governing Council of the European Central Bank. Their term of office shall be eight years and shall not be renewable. Only nationals of Member States may be members of the Executive Board”

Legal Bases

 

 

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