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WAI-ZEI Paper on regulatory matters online

Comparative Regional Integration

Within the framework of the WAI-ZEI research cooperation "Comparative Regional Integration: The European Union and West Africa", five new papers on bi-regional relations in the energy sector, data harmonization and trade liberalization in the service sector are available online.


WAI-ZEI-Paper-11_King-and-MarksNo. 11 2014: Charlotte King and Jon Marks: European-West African Relations in the Field of Energy  - Obstacels to a sustainable approach Praia/ Bonn 2014

The paper analyzes bi-regional relations in the field of energy, considering the commercial trade dynamics of energy as a set of commodities, as well as political dynamics of energy as a strategic good. More specifically, it discusses West Africa hydrocarbon structures and agency reminiscent of the colonial era, while exploring newly arising global patterns of supply and demand that lead to a general shift in global energy flows. Since Africa’s energy poverty continues being perceived in development terms, while Europe’s energy security is conceived in strategic, geopolitical terms, the paper identifies obstacles and opportunities to reinvent the bi-regional relationship for the new set of energy dynamic with both regions benefitting from interdependent energy systems. (Download)


WAI-ZEI-Paper-12_RabaudNo. 12 2014: Isabelle Rabaud: Measuring the Costs and Benefits of Liberalization of Trade in Services: Lessons for Regional Integration and Sectoral Policies. Praia/ Bonn 2014

This paper draws insights from the literature on Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Modeling of potential gains from liberalization for developing countries, in particular Northern, Eastern and Southern African economies. Due to the importance of regulatory framework and to the size of service industries, substantial potential gains are expected from liberalization, by accession to WTO, regional, preferential or bilateral trade agreements.  However, it seems that attention should be focused on the specificity of each region and country and that a sectoral approach is necessary. Regarding the choice between multilateral, bilateral or regional liberalization, the optimal framework depends on service industries. Institutions particularly matter for services and reforms should be global and focused. Domestic reforms are necessary prior to trade liberalization. (Download)


WAI-ZEI-Paper-13_JaubertNo. 13 2014: Jérôme Joubert: Negotiating Service Liberalization at Regional Level - The Case of West Africa / Négocier la libéralisation des services à un niveau régional - Application aux pays de l’Afrique de l’Ouest. Praia/ Bonn 2014

The paper proposes steps to achieve preferential liberalization of regional trade in services within the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) zone by analyzing the interests of such an agreement, the potential benefits for member countries and ECOWAS zone, as well as possible combinations of this regional endeavor with ongoing or future initiatives at bilateral and multilateral level. Describing the various stages that may lead to the achievement of such an agreement, it discusses potential barriers to service trade, possible forms of agreement, the scope of the sectors concerned and the methods of negotiation that can be deployed. Highlighting the needs to make positive list of sectors and negative list of commitments, it also provides details of the types of reciprocity that must be mobilized for obtaining reciprocal concessions. (Download)


WAI-ZEI-Paper-14_NitschNo. 14 2014: Volker Nitsch: International Trade in Services - Data, Issues, Findings, and Recommendations. Praia/ Bonn 2014

This paper reviews recent empirical research on international trade in services from a European perspective. The availability of relevant data is discussed; stylized facts are presented; and methodological issues for the analysis are highlighted. Using disaggregated micro data from individual European countries, it also provides an application for the study of trade in services, finding that trade relationships in service and merchandise trade are surprisingly short-lived. (Download)


WAI-ZEI-Paper-15_KokilNo. 15 2014: Beejaye Kokil: Cross-country Data Analysis of Services Trade – Data Availability and Harmonization in West Africa

The paper describes the definition and concepts of trade in services and gives a general overview of the statistical sources, methods and frameworks of measuring it. It captures the importance of the sector for the West Africa region, recent trends in regional service trade and prospects for its development, as well as related infrastructural challenges. Highlighting data limitations and paucity in the region, it also makes a plea for reinforcing the capacity of the institutions involved in the compilation and analysis of such data; improving the collaboration between the various institutions; using international methodologies and standards for data sharing; as well as employing the latest IT tools to facilitate the processing and dissemination of the data for policy use, the private sector and the public in general. (Download)


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